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The 5G network prides itself around 3 use cases:

Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB)

The demand for mobile broadband has been on an exponential rise, thanks to the increasing number of mobile devices. They connect to the fastest network around and are not conservative in subscribing to contents that require a large bandwidth like high definition video streaming, video instant messaging, teleconferencing etc.

Statista predicted that “by 2022, mobile data traffic is expected to reach 77.5 exabytes (10 to the power of 18) per month worldwide at a compound annual growth rate of 46 percent”. This, in contrast to the 19.01 exabytes per month that the global mobile data traffic amounted to in 2018. You could tell by the bold presence of platforms like; Netflix, TikTok, Instagram, Zoom, YouTube and co, which all consume data and don’t appear to be leaving anytime soon.

This rate of mobile broadband consumption continually lays demand on the network providers and they, as a result, strive to roll out the best of technologies for their customers in a bid to meet the demands of faster speed, larger bandwidth and reduced latency.

4G at its best could achieve a data rate of up to 300 Mb/s for downlink and 75 Mb/s for uplink- which is up to 500 times faster than 3G. 5G, however, was conceptualized to be as much as 100 times faster than 4G, with peak data rates of 20Gb/s for downlink and 10Gb/s for uplink. What does this mean in a practical term? It means it would take less than 10 seconds to download a 2-hour movie! And the latency, which is the time required for data to travel between two devices, is set to a maximum of 1ms as against 4G’s 20ms. Lastly, the problem of congestion becomes solved as this generation of network is built to handle much more bandwidth compared to the previous generations.

Ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC)

This specific use case makes provision for low latency and ultra-high reliability, which would be useful for mission-critical applications like remote surgery, autonomous driving, gaming, Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), and smart gird etc. This use case also provides end-to-end security and reliability of 99.999%.
Massive machine type communications (mMTC)

mMTC is about the wireless connectivity of a large number of devices with a low data rate, a low power consumption leading to a long life battery life of possibly more than 10 years, low cost, and availability for quite a long time. Applications of these could be found in connected vehicles, smart metering, and smart cities.

How can all these be?

It is possible you are wondering how all these features could be combined and found in a singular network, right? Well, the design of 5G is that for each use case, specific key features that are unique and paramount to the use case would be more pronounced than the others. How do I mean?

For an eMBB use case, for instance, peak data rate, user experience data rate, support for mobility, spectrum efficiency, network energy efficiency and area traffic capacity are the most important key performances. They are, therefore, considered with utmost preference. This is not necessarily the case in the case of URLLC, where mobility and latency are the priorities. As a matter of fact, the data rate involved in such scenarios are low, in the measure of kbps, and the required latency is much higher than that of, say, mMTC.

How does 5G achieve all of these?

Larger Bandwidth

As a result of the increasing demands on data services by mobile users, as earlier mentioned, the existing bands of the radio-frequency spectrum being used have become more crowded. This consequently implies a slower service delivery and probably less satisfactory speed and connectivity.

Since one of the goals of 5G is to have an increased data rate, remember, 100 times faster than 4G, it behooves of the network providers to consider moving away from the familiar range of radio frequency spectrum to one that might not have been used yet for mobile services, as the former has been crammed. This is the motivation for deciding to employ the millimeter waves (mm-waves). They are referred to as millimeter waves because they have quite a short wavelength, in the range of 1 to 10 mm, and operate at high frequencies, in the range of 30 to 300 GHz.

These high frequencies mean that there is a larger available bandwidth. As beautiful as the proposal of the adoption of the mm-waves is, there seem to be some limiting factors. One is that millimeter waves cannot travel far because of their high frequencies. They are also easily absorbed by obstacles like walls and buildings and are therefore prone to being attenuated.

Does transmitting at high frequencies pose a risk to human health?

First and foremost, it is important to state that millimeter wave frequencies adopted for 5G are put in the category of non-ionizing radiation. This means that the energy of the smallest structure of these electromagnetic waves is not enough to stir the movement of electrons from their orbits. In a simpler term, non-ionizing radiation is not capable of producing the type of energy that could directly cause harms to cells or cause DNAs to break apart. The quantity of energy needed to remove an electron from its atom is around 12 eV while the highest photon energy emitted by a millimeter wave is 1.2 meV. This means for the mm-wave to be harmful, it would require 10,000 times more than the amount of energy it normally emits.

Having established that the mm-wave is categorized as non-ionizing radiation, it is, however, also important to mention that it has been discovered that it has the potential of causing heating to the objects it illuminates- but no worries. This is why there are governing bodies and regulations. They ensure that electromagnetic waves are transmitted at a power that limits their heating effects on the human bodies to become significantly less than 1°. Also for mm-wave, their short wavelength reduces how much they could penetrate, further reducing unintended harms.

Network Densification

One of the effects of moving to higher frequencies is that the attenuation increases. To make up for this, a concept called network densification is adopted.

Network densification involves the addition of smaller cells (a cell is an area served by a Base Station) to increase the capacity of the network. For 5G, the inter-site distance between each cell is about 100 to 200m. That means 5G antennas would be found very close to one another transmitting radio frequency signals at high frequencies, but with low power. With such proximity, the goals of the peak data rate would be a reality and the capabilities of the adopted high frequencies would be fully optimized.

Multiple Antennas

Another enabling factor for the high performances of the 5G network is a technology called Massive MIMO. Massive MIMO is an improvement of MIMO.

MIMO, which stands for Multiple Input Multiple Output, is a technique employed to maximize the capacity of a network through the use of multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver, running on the same frequencies and at the same time. With this arrangement, more than one data signal could be simultaneously sent and received over the same channel.

Massive MIMO describes the increase in the number of antennas with respect to the original MIMO system by an order of magnitude. This could range from tens to hundreds of antennas.

Coupled with massive MIMO is the use of another technique called beamforming. Beamforming is used on arrays of antenna for precise directivity. It allows for the focusing of the energy of the transmitted signal towards a specific receiver, rather than having it spread in every direction. This comes quite handy in 5G networks, where the frequency is high and is prone to attenuation, by enhancing the coverage of the network.

While massive MIMO improves the capacity of the network by leveraging the array of antenna combinations, beamforming makes each receiver appear like the only user benefiting from the massive array of antennas.

Network Slicing

Network slicing is a concept which describes the virtualized division of single physical network infrastructure into independent logical networks. It enables specific functionalities unique to particular use cases to be implemented. Each logical compartment or slice is an isolated end-to-end network on its own and is uniquely enabled to meet specific demands as required by the use case.

Mobile Network Operators adopt technological concepts like Software Defined Networking (SDN), Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), orchestration, and automation to achieve this abstracted slicing of the network infrastructure, thereby providing portions of their networks for specific use cases, instead of an invariant approach adopted in the earlier generations of the mobile network.

In Conclusion

Although it might take a while, from now, before all of these design specifications could be met, but I can assure you, by the time it is all ready, 5G would not only change the way communication is done, it would also change the way we view the world.

Thank you!

© Akintomiwa Opoola

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Domestic violence is a violence or other abuse in a marriage.
Domestic violence could involve any body but I’m looking at it in a family setting between a man and his wife.

Domestic violence includes

  • Physical, verbal, emotional, economic, religion reproductive and sexual abuse.

Many people are going through a lot in marriages today, some Christan homes inclusive. This has caused a lot of harms in homes, churches and the society at large. So many women have lost their lives in the process,men inclusive but women are mostly at the receiving end. And they endure mostly even to the point of loosing their lives. This they do because of:

  1. The love they have for their spouse
  2. Because of their children
  3. What the society will say about them
  4. Because of their faith and religion.

Please when beating and sexual molestation becomes the case in your home, there’s need for separation.

Now in as much as the Bible frowns at divorce, I don’t think it’ll be reasonable for one to remain in an abusive marriage where his/her life is a stake. The same children you think about will still be maltreated, neglected and will be forced to face horrible situations the moment you are gone. The same society you are thinking of what they will say will still blame you for not speaking out on time. Your making heaven is even very slim because I don’t think your heart is clean in that condition. Your bad thoughts, unforgiveness and bitterness is enough to send you to hell. And instead of you to commit murder, I think you should separate if that’s the only option left.

Many women are going through alot. When a domestic violence involves life threatening abuses, there’s need for you to seek for help.

Many women have died in this process. Pls being born again doesn’t mean your brain should be suspended. Yes divorce is a sin but you shouldn’t die either because you are married. You are being asked to keep praying often times, yes but you could do that also while away. Many women are dying silently. Women please speak out in such conditions, don’t keep quiet. Make sure the problem is not from you. Make sure you are not the cause of it.

I have seen a woman beating blue black by her husband. Not once not twice. Infact the man always use cane,belt etc on her. And she’s asked to keep praying. What if she die one day? What if she couldn’t take it any longer and tries to defend herself and kill her partner in the process, what will be her lot?

Women should take the necessary steps the moment they see that things are getting out of hand.

Try to see how you could save the situation by involving your spiritual leaders, your both families,the people your partner respects so much and if there’s no changes please take a break while you pray and take the necessary steps to save your marriage.

Pls note that your being away is for the mean time. Even while away you are to remain and keep your body. It’s not a time to go about messing up. If you do that you are commenting sin. You are to maintain sexual purity. Even when your partner is doing otherwise. The only time remarriage is possible is when one partner is dead. See Romans 7:2,1cor.7:39.

Neighbors should as well look out for their fellow women/men. Please speak out for them. Some of them are in a tight corner and can’t help themselves.

Stay tuned for the next post on this same topic!

Say no to domestic violence.

What’s your take on this? Share your opinion.
Will you allow your daughter, sister, brother,son go through domestic violence?
What will you have them do;the abused?

By Chika Helen Nwabueze’

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By Oladimeji Ramon

A group, the Federal Social Democrats, says the credibility and integrity of the Lagos State Governor, Mr Babajide Sanwo-Olu, have been diminished by the alleged shooting of #EndSARS protesters by soldiers at the Lekki tollgate on the night of October 20.

According to the group, the Lekki incident has eroded the admiration that Sanwo-Olu won with his handling of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The group, in statement on Sunday signed on its behalf by Olutola Mobolurin, also condemned the harassment of #EndSARS protest leaders through the freezing of their bank accounts and stopping them from travelling outside the country.

The FSD’s statement was titled, ‘Statement by the Federal Social Democrats On the #EndSARS Movement and Violence in the Wake of Lekki Shootings.’

The group said, “Governor Sanwo-Olu, who before now has been credited with responsible and energetic response to the COVID-19 pandemic, has by this one act lost his credibility and integrity for many. He has a big task in regaining the confidence of the public and youths; his credibility gap surrounding what happened at the Lekki Toll Plaza is not helped by the insensitive bluster of Asiwaju Bola Ahmed Tinubu at the governor’s residence stating that those who were injured and presumably those who died had questions to answer.”

Though the group condemned the destruction of public assets and looting that trailed the shootings at the Lekki tollgate, it said the mayhem pointed to the alienation of a large number of youths from society by government.

It said, “The so-called hoodlums are the youths that have been denied any stake in society by the self-dealing and state capture that have characterised governance over the last 30 years. Millions of our youths have been uneducated, unemployable and with no meaningful social safety net. Even for the millions who are educated and skilled, long-term unemployment has been their experience in the Nigerian prebendal political economy that serves primarily the interests of public office holders and their cronies.

“Some of the ‘hoodlums’ responsible for the trashing of Lagos are the youths and ‘the toughies’ that many politicians have over the years employed to subvert the democratic process through intimidation of voters and perpetration of violence during elections.”

The group said the organisers of the #EndSARS protests deserved commendation for the resourcefulness, transparency and accountability which they demonstrated.

The group condemned “the growing reports of compilation of names of the assumed leaders and facilitators of the protests for government reprisals.”

It said, “Those that are being targeted are reportedly being prevented from travelling outside Nigeria while accounts of some have been frozen. This is hardly the hallmark of a democratic government that is interested in dialoguing with the youths or learning positive lessons from the #EndSARS protests. It is also a violation of the spirit of government’s acceptance of the 5 for 5 agenda. The President should stop all these acts of witch-hunt.”

The FSD solicited support for the Lagos State Government to rebuild and replace the vandalised public assets.

  • PunchNg

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• Nigeria’s Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala had been expected to be confirmed as leader on Monday

By Richard Partington

The race to find a new leader of the World Trade Organization has been thrown into renewed uncertainty after the cancellation of a key appointment meeting following the US presidential election.

The Geneva-based WTO, which acts as an international arbiter for trading disputes, said it had put off a meeting scheduled for Monday that had been called to appoint Nigeria’s Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala as its next director general.

Donald Trump’s administration opposed her selection in one of its final acts before the US election, despite the former Nigerian finance minister securing the overwhelming backing of the WTO’s 164 members.

The special meeting of the trade body’s general council had been convened to take a formal decision on the appointment. Officials had been set to put forward Dr Okonjo-Iweala as the candidate most likely to attract a majority, after most countries expressed a preference for her over South Korea’s Yoo Myung-hee.

Okonjo-Iweala had moved a step closer to becoming the first woman and the first African to be director of the global trade watchdog after securing backing from the EU, China, Japan and Australia. Liam Fox, the leading Brexiter and former international trade secretary, had run as the UK government’s preferred candidate but failed to win enough support from other countries to reach the last two in the process.

Trade experts said Joe Biden defeating Trump in last week’s election may have led to countries calling for a delay in the WTO leadership race, with the aim of securing the Biden White House’s backing for Okonjo-Iweala after he takes charge in January.

The delay in selecting a new WTO director general comes at a fragile moment for the world economy amid the second wave of Covid-19, and after years of criticism of the WTO and calls for reform from Trump.

The WTO said the meeting would be postponed until further notice, during which time the organisation would continue undertaking consultations with delegations from countries around the world to pick a new leader.

It said in a statement: “For reasons including the health situation and current events, delegations will not be in a position to take a formal decision on 9 November.”

  • TheGuardian

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala

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